Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Geography of the Tropic of Capricorn

The Tropic of Capricorn is an imaginary line of latitude going around the Earth at approximately 23.5 ° south of the equator. It is the southernmost point on Earth where the suns rays can be directly overhead at local noon. It is also one of the five major circles of latitude dividing the Earth (the others are the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere, the equator, the Arctic Circle and the Antarctic Circle). Geography  of the Tropic of Capricorn The Tropic of Capricorn is significant to understanding the Earths geography because it marks the southern boundary of tropics. This is the region that extends from the equator south to the Tropic of Capricorn and north to the Tropic of Cancer. Unlike the Tropic of Cancer, which passes through many areas of land in the northern hemisphere, the Tropic of Capricorn passes mainly through water because there is less land for it to cross in the southern hemisphere. However, it does cross through or is near places like Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, Madagascar, and Australia. Naming of the Tropic of Capricorn Around 2,000 years ago, the sun crossed into the constellation of Capricorn at the winter solstice around December 21. This resulted in this line of latitude being named the Tropic of Capricorn. The name Capricorn itself comes from the Latin word caper, meaning goat and was the name given to the constellation. This was then later transferred to the Tropic of Capricorn. It should be noted, however, that because it was named over 2,000 years ago, the specific location of the Tropic of Capricorn today is no longer in the constellation Capricorn. Instead, it is located in the constellation Sagittarius. Significance of the Tropic of Capricorn In addition to being used to aid in dividing the Earth into different parts and marking the southern boundary of the tropics, the Tropic of Capricorn, like the Tropic of Cancer is also significant to the Earths amount of solar insolation and the creation of seasons. Solar insolation is the amount of Earths direct exposure to the suns rays from incoming solar radiation. It varies over the Earths surface based on the amount of direct sunlight hitting the surface and it is mostly when it is directly overhead at the subsolar point which migrates annually between the Tropics of Capricorn and Cancer based on the Earths axial tilt. When the subsolar point is at the Tropic of Capricorn, it is during the December or winter solstice and is when the southern hemisphere receives the most solar insolation. Thus, it is also when the southern hemispheres summer begins. Furthermore, this is also when the areas at latitudes higher than the Antarctic Circle receive 24 hours of daylight because there is more solar radiation to be deflected south due to the Earths axial tilt.

Friday, May 15, 2020

Analysis of Racial Profiling in the Criminal Justice System

Analysis of Racial Profiling In the Criminal Justice System Police officers today face many challenges. Some concerns include dangers or safety concerns related to being a police officer, questions of the use of force and the public’s perception of officers being corrupt. Additionally, with cases of deaths and accusations that have come to the forefront about police throughout the United Stated, questions about police racial profiling have also come to light. Today’s police are considered to be corrupt and prejudice against minorities. Their image has been tarnished and police are now seen as the enemy. Many compare today’s law enforcement officers to the police officers that were prejudice and brutalized blacks during the civil rights†¦show more content†¦During the civil rights era, blacks traveled together and were quick to warn each other to stay quiet during traffic stops. They didn’t know what the slightest movement or a twisted word could result in. It was an understanding in the black community th at fighting for you rights even in a peaceful manner or questioning the tactics of a police officer during a traffic stop or as they performed their duties was a sure road to death, arrest and or brutal beatings. One of many examples of the brutality allowed to take place by police is In 1964, Freedom Summer was organized as a voter registration project in Mississippi. It was part of an effort by a coalition of civil rights groups to register black voters in the South. A large, racially mixed group of college students traveled to Mississippi to participate in the project. On June 16, 1964, two of the white students, Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman, and a local African American, James Chaney, disappeared. Their badly beaten bodies were discovered buried in an earthen dam six weeks later. They had been arrested by local police and released to the Klu Klux Klan. (Ware, 2013, p.1090) Although there was progress for blacks during the civil rights movement, it was slow. Many great leaders emerged during this time and some like Martin Luther King became a sacrifice for the cause of equality and freedom. The tone of non-violence promoted by so manyShow MoreRelatedPolicy Process Essay1222 Words   |  5 PagesSociety relies on the criminal justice system to maintain order within communities and to maintain a safe environment for community members. Society expects the criminal justice system to provide justice by separating the guilty from the innocent, to incapacitate dangerous individuals, to promote deterrence to law-breaking individuals, and to rehabilitate offenders. An important expectation of the criminal justice system is to provide fair and just consequences to criminal offenders and assist theRead MoreRacial Profiling Is A Necessary Evil1100 Words   |  5 PagesRacial Profiling In order to understand racial profiling, it must first be correctly defined. Although different authors use different criteria for the term racial profiling, the definition for the word racial is â€Å"of, relating to, or based on a race The definition the dictionary puts forth for profiling is â€Å"the act of suspecting or targeting a person solely on the basis of observed characteristics or behavior.† Based on these definitions, racial profiling could be defined for criminal justice purposesRead MoreProfessional Racism and Discrimination1117 Words   |  5 PagesDepartment has a reputation for using race as a basis to catch criminals. Racial profiling is the use of race or ethnicity as grounds for believing an individual is suspicious of committing a crime. Discriminatory or abusive behavior towards people of color affects the justice system and violates people’s human rights. The LAPD continues to use racial profiling against mostly African-Americans and Latinos. The use of racial profiling by the LAPD prevents the police from serving the whole communityRead MoreRacial Profiling And The United States1348 Words   |  6 PagesIn today’s world we deal with multiple cases of racial profiling seemingly on a daily basis. Turn on the television, check the internet, or simply have a discussion with someone and you’ll hear about it. Racial Profiling describes discriminatory practices by law enforcement officials who target people for suspicion of crime based on their ethnicity, race, origin, or religion. The term first came about during the War on Drugs in the 1970’s and 1980’s when law enforcement were accused of pullingRead MoreHow Law Enforcement Affects Minorities1392 Words   |  6 Pagesoutcomes due to the crime and the criminal and their racial background. Although a long time has passed since all decision making came from the white supremacist and we do have a more diverse system the race of the criminal seems to still be affecting the outcomes of criminal justice. In earlier times, courtrooms and many jurisdictions were all white decisionmakers. We can see a lot of poorly executed decisions by law enforcement such as stop and frisk due to racial profiling or taking advantage of youngRead MoreRacial Profiling And The Justice System1365 Words   |  6 Pagesthere are high expectations of equality and justice. But, this is just how it looks like at a glance in Canada, as for minorities living in Canada and, in particular to black Canadians, these minorities face a different reality in the encounters with police and the justice system in comparison to their white counterparts. Which raises the question of how equal each citizen really is under the same rules. Therefore, in the essay I argue racial profiling is evident in stop and search practices targetingRead MoreRacial Profiling And The United States1160 Words   |  5 Pagesby police and many other people for committing crimes. This is called racial profiling, and it is an issue going on around us. Some considers racial profiling a new phenomenon, and it is important to examine it because it is a foundational aspect of law and law enforcement in the United States. Glover in the book Racial Profiling: Research, Racism, and Resistance defines racial profiling in contemporary times â€Å"as the use of racial and or ethnic status as the determinant factor in decision to stop motoristRead MoreRacial Profiling And The Criminal Justice System1582 Words   |  7 PagesRacial disparity in the Criminal Justice system has been a issue of discussion in our law enforcement for years. Statistics say the likelihood of imprisonment in a lifetime is 1 in 3 black men, 1 in 6 Latino men and 1 in 17 white men. (Bonczar2003) The search and seizure 4th amendment was passed in 1789 which was supposed to protect all persons of unreasonable searches, etc. In 1944 Gunner Myrdal wrote â€Å"it’s part of a policeman’s philosophy that Negro criminals or suspects that show any sign of insub ordinationRead MoreEssay on Criminal Profiling1253 Words   |  6 PagesCriminal profiling is one of few first things to think of when it comes to forensic psychology. Criminal profiling is featured in popular television shows such as in Law and Order and CSI. Often in those shows, the police officers were able to catch the criminals based on the criminal profile that forensic psychologists came up with. In a theory, the polices rely on criminal profiling to catch criminals, educate the public about a possible criminal, and confirm the witnesses’ accounts. CriminalRead MoreA Color Problem in a Post Racial Nation Essay1637 Words   |  7 Pageswhether it be black, white, brown, red, or yellow doesn’t matter in America anymore. One might assume that this statement is a plausible one, given the fact that we have a male â€Å"African American† president, and America is now considered to be a â€Å"Post-Racial Nation† (Rush Limbaugh, 2010), where skin colo r is no longer an inhibiting factor. The truth of the matter is that race has most certainly played a significant factor in America’s history since the early 16th century and through to the 21st century

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Are Philosophers Good Citizens Plato s Republic

POL200Y1 – C. Orwin Maria Ouchnikova | 1001396170 Are Philosophers Good Citizens in Plato’s Republic? It seems that Plato says that the good man is a just man. Philosopher by nature is endowed with the ability to understand what justice is and how to achieve it. However, only because philosopher has the knowledge of the true sense, does that make them just and moreover a good citizen? To figure this out we need to look carefully at the definition of each of the terms. First of all, while the definition of a good man and a good citizen tend to overlap for the most part, there appears to be a slight difference between the two. A good citizen is the one who does what is good for the city, and for the benefit of the community. He is the one who obeys the laws. A good man however, is a just man, who achieves and possesses superior virtues. It appears that the definition of a good man is way deeper than the one of a good citizen and there is no reason to assume that the two are the same. Justice and discussion as to what it actually is presents as one of the major themes in Plato’s Republic. Plato defines justice as the highest virtue in a state, built on principles of good. Just society is the one, in which everyone fully realizes abilities given to them by nature and rightly practices those abilities and nothing else. Justice is closely related to the person and the ideal state, tying them together. â€Å"Justice is a virtue of a soul† (R. 353e) and just like how there are threeShow MoreRelatedPersonal Philosophy : Al Farabi1684 Words   |  7 Pagesinfluencing many prominent philosophers, like Ibn Sina. Through his works, he became well known in the East as well as the West. Al Farabi’s philosophy was heavily influenced by Greek philosophy just like how western philosophy was influenced by Greek philosophy. Specifically, Aristotle, Plato, and Socrates were the main Greek influencers of Al Farabi. Al Farabi as well as Ibn Sina have been recogn ized as Peripatetics or rationalists. The best known Arabic source for Al Farabi s political philosophy isRead MoreComparing Plato s Republic, The Philosopher And Plato965 Words   |  4 PagesIn Plato s Republic, the philosopher is sitting having a discussion with his fellow peers and friends. During this conversation each character except Plato offers their opening and reasoning on the question, what is justice. For the majority of the book Plato outlines almost every aspect of his ideal city. Within this city Plato has set up many rules in order for the city to remain just. All the way from mating rituals to who should rule, virtually all factors have been thought of and serves a specificRead MoreComparing Aristotle and Plato Essays1325 Words   |  6 PagesAristotle and Plato Aristotle argues that in order for a polis to emerge, a union between man and women must convene. Later a household must be introduced which unites with other households to form a village, villages come together to form city-states. This theory is Aristotle’s natural view that an individual can not be self sufficient Plato argues that, in order to achieve absolute justice, a city-state is needed. In The Republic, Plato builds around the idea of Philosopher Rulers. EvenRead MorePlato, Nietzsche, And Aristotles Theory Of Political Philosophy1670 Words   |  7 Pagesrenditions of what political theory is. This essay will focus on Plato, Nietzsche, and Aristotle, and their works, which respectively define the concepts of the common good and the significance of philosophers to the welfare of the state, self-deceiving intellect and the power of authority over our intellectual lives, and the concepts of interdependency and the importance of virtue and happiness for a successful political framework. Plato, and his works are renowned for the development of the most centralRead MorePlato Vs Aristotle On Politics And Philosophy1899 Words   |  8 PagesPlato versus Aristotle Plato and Aristotle, two philosophers in the 4th century, hold polar views on politics and philosophy in general. This fact is very cleverly illustrated by Raphael s School of Athens (1510-11; Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican), where Plato is portrayed looking up to the higher forms; and Aristotle is pointing down because he supports the natural sciences. In a discussion of politics, the stand point of each philosopher becomes an essential factor. It is not coincidental thatRead MoreThe Republic By Plato And The Prince By Machiavelli1617 Words   |  7 PagesAlthough written nearly two centuries apart, The Republic by Plato and The Prince by Machiavelli offer important views on political philosophies of rulers. Plato writes of a perfect society where status as ruler is naturally selected through innate abilit ies. These abilities are used to sustain the society, better it, and preserve it. Machiavelli writes of a society where anyone can be a prince; which for our purposes is a synonym for ruler, if they follow his instructions. These instructions areRead MorePolitical Theory Has Changed Over The History Of The World1608 Words   |  7 Pages Political theory has changed over the history of the discipline. Two of the most influential and arguably most important theorists are the Greek philosopher Plato, and the Renaissance’s Niccolo Machiavelli. These two characters represent the beginning of idealistic political thought, and a more realist and contemporary way that politics are looked at even today. The ideals of these two will be discussed and dissected, to some extent to show how unobtainable Plato’s ideal is compared toRead MoreComparing Aristotle s 8 1455 Words   |  6 PagesNow the question is what values should one have to rule, what makes them qualified compared to others. Plato outlines the different aspects of government and why he believes an aristocracy would be better form of government. In book 8 Socrates starts to wrap up his depiction of a just city. He starts to break down the four unjust constitutions of the city and man. Timocracy, which is represented by the honor-driven man who resembles and rules that sort of government. There is an oligarchy, ruledRead MoreCultural, Economical, Religious, And Political Contributions847 Words   |  4 PagesBCE – 476 CE, assisted in the development of western culture. Albeit Rome embraced and developed some characteristics of Greek culture, they still made prominent contributions of their own. Rome and Greece contributed Christianity, Philosophy, The Republic, and Literature. At the time, Roman religion was centered on gods and the interpretation of why things were the way they were. Each god had its own special day where priest would sacrifice animals and offer it to them. Rome’s religion was challengedRead MoreJustice Is The Legal Or Philosophical Theory Of Justice1503 Words   |  7 PagesJustice is the art which gives to each man what is good for his soul. Discuss. â€Å"Justice is the art which gives to each man what is good for his soul† and that is simply to say that justice is identical with, or inseparable with philosophy. (Cahn, Political Philosophy, 1-136) Justice is an order and duty of the parts of the soul; it is to the soul as medicine preserves the health of the body. In its current and cardinal definition is a just behavior or treatment; a concern for justice, peace, and

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Professional Practice and Ethics

Question: Discuss about theProfessional Practice and Ethics. Answer: Evidence of Global Living in the Community STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES OPPORTUNITIES THREATS Ethical Issues Social Connections The culture of Trinidad and Tobago reflects a mixed culture of Indian, African, American, Chinese, Jewish and in fact Europeans as well (Spiers, Gundala Singh, 2014). Due to the mixed culture, sometimes the ethnic people of the people lose their identity. There is a good opportunity of gaining a social connection from different ethnic groups of people. This mixed culture has resulted in riots, protests and army mutiny. Ethical issues arise as a result of mixed cultures. Issues related to religion and castes are common in this region. Natural Resources Protected Exploited The region has enough forest resources. There is less availability of mineral resources in the regions around. Good opportunity for growing different types of agricultural products. Increased rate of conversion of natural ecosystem to build commercial and residential places. Degradation of natural resources results in unsustainable approach towards the environment. Consumer Goods Imports Exports Major imported products include lubricants, manufactured goods, food, chemicals and live animals. Major exported goods include petroleum and petroleum products, methanol, citrus fruit, vegetables and flowers ( Youssef Morgan, 2013). The exchange rate is not high compared to other exported products of other regions. With forest products, there is a great opportunity of increasing the exported products from the country. With the increase rate of US dollars, the country does not gain good exchange value of the exported products. Sometimes, the ethnic race of the region protests against the increasing exploitation of the natural resources. Media The mass media includes one television station with five channels and two radio stations. The Trinidad Express and Trinidad Guardian are the major daily newspapers available in web as well. Limited number of media channels sometimes does not prove enough to establish a good reputation among the population of the country. There is great opportunity of outside media houses to carry out their business activities in this region. Other major channels like BBC, Guardian and others are more influential and are major threats to the Nation. In case if outside media house expand their business activities in this region, chances of communal riots and violence are expected to occur. Law The law welcomes Foreign Direct Investment. Thus, the country can improve its economic condition. The economy of the region is not strong and coming of major companies might hinder the economy of the Nation. With the increasing FDI, the economy of the country might improve. In case if the influence of other companies increase, the country might have to suffer. The local people might rise up for protest. International Agreements With proper agreements, the nation welcomes many companies and industries. The law of the Nation is weak compared to other places with whom agreements are signed. Changes in law might attract good opportunities for the Country. Other influential company might dominate the nation with their business policy. Protesting for saving own economy might be an ethical issue. Part:- 1 This assignment asks you to provide evidence of globalization in your local context. Examine your community for evidence of globalization. What goods, services, and resources do you use on a daily or weekly basis that has global connections? Complete below graphic Part 2: Study the four approaches to Universal Ethics: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights; a global ethic; the Global Business Standards Codes; and the Caux Principles. Choose which approach resonate the most with you. This is the approach you will work with for this assignment. Make sure your final product is clear about which approach you chose! Write a Business Sales Pitch which will sell your approach to investors who will help you start to make your Country Aware of this Approach to Universal Ethics. The Worlds Religions in Chicago, USA has introduced a document towards a Global Ethic that marked the continuation of a first born tradition. With this approach, it was declared that there should be peace among different religions because there shall be no world peace without the peace in religion (Charles, 2016). Therefore, it is important for the creation of Global ethics among different Nation. In order to continue Global Trade, there should be peace of religion. The declaration of Global Ethics resembles the following thing: Commitment towards a non-violence and respectful life of people Commitment towards a society of culturally solidarity and with just economic order. Commitment of a tolerable and truthful culture of the people in the society. Commitment towards equal rights and partnership between people of different genders. There are irrevocable and unconditional norms for all areas of life including families, races, nation and religion. There are already a number of religions in the World that have different teachings and manifestation. Any citizen cannot be disregarded for their justice in the community where they live. There should be ethical approach towards each person. Trinidad and Tobago is well known for its mixed group of people belonging to different culture and ethnic race (Youssef Morgan, 2013). It is for the same reason, very important to create peace of religion among the people that in case of any kind of trade activities, there might not be any chaos or riots in the complete business process. If a business sales pitch is considered, it can be said that any investor can be attracted on the circumstance that the Company is tolerant towards any religion or any ethnic group of people. This way, the investors can also gain a level of confidence in the company and invest peacefully with a hope that their business activities will be appreciated and valued. References: Brereton, B. (2013). The historical background to the culture of violence in Trinidad Tobago. Charles, R. A. (2016). Examining creative solutions to employment insecurities in Trinidad and Tobago through the use of community media projects. Spiers, S., Gundala, R. R., Singh, M. (2014). Culture and Consumer Behavior-A Study of Trinidad Tobago and Jamaica.International Journal of Marketing Studies,6(4), 92. Youssef, V., Morgan, P. (2013). The Culture of Violence in Trinidad and Tobago: A Case Study.

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Social Marketing and Sustainability

Introduction Social marketing involves the application of marketing skills and technology in influencing human behaviours with a view of overcoming certain issues in society.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Social Marketing and Sustainability specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, social marketing is a powerful tool in influencing human behaviours because it involves the use of downstream and upstream strategies, as well as applying theories of behaviour change to address some of the social issues. Speeding is a social issue in New South Wales because it causes about 40% of road deaths, results into more than 200 deaths, and is responsible for over 4000 injuries per year (Blender, 2009). In this view, this report analyses RTA campaign and examines application of two behavioural change models. Background Information, Target Audience Behaviour Change Following rampant cases of road accidents, the Road Transpo rt Authority (RTA) of New South Wales, Australia, launched an anti-speeding campaign with a video entitled â€Å"Speeding: No One Think Big of You† (NOTBOY). The RTA speeding campaign was remarkably successful because it enabled RTA to reduce the occurrence of accidents on the roads of New South Wales. According to Bender (2009, p.158), RTA campaign was â€Å"one of the cleverest ad campaigns† and â€Å"very successful† because it ridiculed racing drivers, thus discouraging speeding behaviour among drivers.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Prior to the RTA speeding campaign, the RTA employed campaign approach that instils shock and fear on the drivers, but it never worked well. The RTA campaign targeted the entire community to influence changes in behaviour amongst youths who regard speeding as a fun activity, way showing off, and a trendy affair. The RT A campaign was successful because it had its basis on previous anti-speeding campaigns, but extended to use social approach, which empowered the community to create a culture that does not accept speeding. By use of social approach, the RTA campaign made extensive awareness amongst the youths and community leading to decreased cases of accidents. The audience targeted by the RTA campaign included divers, particularly young male drivers between the ages of 17 to 25 who like speeding on the roads of New South Wales. Road accidents in New South Wales have been increasing exponentially due to the behaviours of young male drivers who like speeding. Statistics show that about 40% of road deaths occur due speeding in New South Wales (Dorn 2010). The dominant group of drivers involved in the accidents is the group of young male drivers. The young male drivers speed because they perceive speeding as a means of displaying their prowess in driving (Hartig 2000).Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Social Marketing and Sustainability specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this view, the RTA campaign targeted the young male drivers through upstream and midstream social marketing strategies. The upstream social marketing focused on the use of media and community as influencers of behaviour change while midstream social marketing involved the use of family and friends in discouraging speeding. Therefore, the youths between the ages of 17 to 25 years were the target audience given that they were ready for action because they form about 17% of the speeding drivers, who experience accidents in New South Wales. The RTA campaign proposed to change speeding behaviour of young male drivers, who used driving as a way of showing off their driving prowess. To change speeding behaviour and perceptions of the youths, the RTA campaign aimed at making speeding a socially unacceptable trend coupled with discouraging peer app roval of speeding. Overall, the RTA campaign aimed at involving community in creating cultural and societal perceptions that discourage speeding among male youths of New South Wales. From the principles of success, the RTA campaign focused on a single behaviour that is simple and executable in discouraging speeding. Kotler and Lee clarifies, â€Å"One of the key successes is to establish behaviour objectives that are single, simple, and doable acts that become core of the campaign effort† (2004, p.22).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More By empowering the community to view speeding as a socially unacceptable behaviour, the RTA campaign managed to influence an individual’s perception, as no one would speed without having the fear of being a subject of ridicule. The behaviour change of discouraging speeding has potential impact of transforming individual and societal perceptions on speeding as unacceptable behaviour attributed to young and immature boys. Since none of the drivers wanted to appear as young and immature as per the implication of the â€Å"pinkie† campaign, New South Wales experienced a significant reduction in speeding and cases of accidents. The RTA campaign experienced barriers such as peer approval and unsupportive attitude. Peer approval was one of the barriers that the RTA campaign experienced when it aimed at discouraging speeding among male youths. The youths perceived speeding as fun, exciting, and a trendy activity. Moreover, the young male drivers viewed speeding as a way of expr essing their masculinity and showing off their prowess skills in driving. Hence, as the RTA campaign tried to depict speeding as a socially unacceptable behaviour, it was like denying the youths their masculinity. Andreasen (2005) claims, â€Å"barriers in the environment external to the individual make it difficult or impossible to act in employing the downstream approach of social marketing† (p.74). Hence, it was hard for the RTA campaign to influence the youths using the downstream approach because their culture approved speeding. Moreover, unsupportive attitude of the youths is another barrier, as they do not like driving at low speeds. Youths associate low speeding with rawness and female drivers who cannot drive well. Competitively, the youths were struggling to gain experience in speeding and become veteran drivers, while the RTA campaign restricted the same. To overcome barriers of peer approval and unsupportive attitude, the RTA campaign employed upstream and downstr eam approaches of social marketing by involving the media, friends, family, and community. The use of media ensured that the campaign gained extensive awareness among youths and the entire society. Moreover, the RTA campaign empowered the community to participate actively in discouraging speeding behaviours because a significant number of drivers speed on the roads of New South Wales. Donovan and Henley (2010) state that a social marketer can enhance the effectiveness of a campaign strategy by â€Å"adopting upstream approaches that create changes in the environment, as well as downstream approaches targeting individual undesirable behaviours† (p.45). Friends and family members are downstream influencers who helped in overcoming peer pressure and unsupportive attitude, which were barriers to the RTA campaign. Thus, by employing both upstream and downstream approaches, the RTA campaign managed to overcome barriers and change behaviours of youths through the influence of commun ity members. The RTA campaign has significant benefits to the New South Wales. Following its launch, the RTA campaign has considerably reduced cases of accidents in New South Wales because many youths have reduced their speed of driving. Hence, reduced rate of accidents due to speeding is a considerable measurable benefit. Another benefit of the campaign is that there is increased awareness of speeding, thus depicting speeding among youth as unacceptable behaviour in the society. Brennan and Binney (2010) state that about 94% of the general population recognised anti-speeding message in the RTA campaign, while 58% of the young males realised that speeding is unacceptable behaviour in the community. Such figures indicate that the RTA campaign was quite successful in creating a culture in the community that perceives speeding as a socially unacceptable behaviour. Thus, New South Wales has significantly benefited from the campaign, as many youths will no longer speed and cause accident s that lead to loss of lives and cause injuries. Behaviour Change Models Social Norm Theory Social norm theory is one of the theories that explain the change in behaviour among male youths due to the RTA campaign. Social norm theory postulates that change of behaviour of an individual occurs to influence one’s perception on what is normal. Schultz et al. assert that social norms influence human behaviours because they â€Å"not only spur, but also guide action in the direct and meaningful ways† (2007, p.429). In the case of speeding amongst youths, the theory explains that the culture of speeding emerged due to pluralistic ignorance, which made youths view speeding as a socially acceptable behaviour. From the perspective of the youths, speeding was quite acceptable because it was a means of displaying their masculinity as well as prowess in driving. Speeding was one of the social norms that the youths practised because it was a trendy activity for the young male driver s to exhibit their skills. Through their pluralistic ignorance, the youths assumed that all drivers were speeding, and thus they wanted to attain the status of speeding like everyone else. According to the social norm theory, an intervention that exposes the reality of the norms is indispensable in correcting pluralistic ignorance. Although the youths were driving at high speeds, they were comfortable because it was normal according to their norms. In this view, the RTA campaign developed a strategy that focused on changing the youths’ perceptions. The perceptions of the young male drivers were contrary to the reality. While the young male drivers perceived speeding as fun, exciting, and expression of masculinity, the society perceived it as a dangerous affair. Thus, the RTA campaign employed both downstream and upstream strategies of social marketing to influence the community to perceive speeding as unacceptable behaviour. Terry and Hogg (1999) state that a change of human behaviour occurs through a systematic process where dominant social norms influence the development of behaviour. Thus, for the RTA campaign to overcome dominant behaviour of speeding among the youths, it empowered the community to create a culture that views speeding as a despicable behaviour. Theory of Planned Behaviour The theory of planned behaviour postulates that behaviour is a product of benefits, social norms, and cost associated with a given activity. Before one performs a given activity, one has to analyse the benefits and costs associated with social norms. Therefore, the young male drivers found pleasure in speeding because they got recognition from their peers coupled with expressing their masculinity. According to Armitage and Christian (2003), attitudes predict behaviours for social norms moderate the attitude-behaviour relationship. Hence, the behaviour that the young male drivers exhibited reflected their attitudes. To overcome the unsupportive attitudes of the youn g male drivers, the RTA campaign aimed at changing attitudes of the community members so that they can have overwhelming influence on the attitudes of the young male drivers. Ultimately, the RTA changed the community attitudes and perceptions, branded speeding unacceptable behaviour, and reduced cases of accidents due to speeding. Although the young male drivers attempted to hold on to their speeding behaviours, they failed because the community was already empowered to influence their behaviours. Conner and Armitage (1998) assert that the theory of planned behaviour examines attitudes and perceptions relative to social norms of the people. As the RTA campaign changed perceptions and attitudes of the community members who are the majority, the minority young male drivers were unable to resist change. Hence, when community members viewed speeding as a despicable behaviour, the young male drivers followed the perceptions of the community. Eventually, the young male drivers had to comp ly with the demands of the society because the societal norms perceived speeding as unacceptable behaviour among the youths. Buckworth and Dishman (2002) argue, â€Å"Behaviour is predicted by intentions and intentions are predicted by attitude and societal norms† (p.27), which have overwhelming influence on human behaviour. Therefore, the RTA campaign influenced behaviours of the young male drivers to drive at moderate speeds. Conclusion The RTA campaign is the most successful campaign in dealing with speed driving because it managed to change the behaviour of young male drivers as well as other drivers. Despite the many challenges associated with social marketing, the RTA campaign employed both upstream and downstream strategies, which empowered the community, family, and friends to effect changes in behaviour of young male drivers, who perceived speeding as fun, exciting, and a way of expressing their masculinity. Analysis of the RTA campaign shows that it complied with fa ctors necessary for successful social marketing. Moreover, the RTA applied theory of social norm and the theory of planned behaviour in changing speeding behaviour of young male drivers in New South Wales. Reference List Andreasen, A 2005, Social marketing in the 21st century, SAGE Publisher, California. Armitage, C Christian, J 2003, Planned behaviour: The relationships between human thought and action, Transaction publishers, New York. Bender, M 2009, The fast, the fraudulent the fatal: The dangerous and dark side of illegal street racing, drifting and modified cars, AuthorHouse, California. Brennan, L Binney, W 2010, ‘Fear, Guilt and Shame Appeals in Social Marketing’, Journal of Business Research, vol. 63 no. 2, pp.140-146. Buckworth, J Dishman, R. 2002, Exercise Psychology, Human Kinetics, New York. Conner, M Armitage, C 1998, ‘Extending the theory of planned behaviour: A review and avenues for further research’, Journal of Applied Social Psycholo gy, vol. 28 no 1, pp.1429-1464 Donovan, R Henley, N 2010, Principles and practice of social marketing: An international perspective, Cambridge University Press, New York. Dorn, L 2010, Driver behaviour and training: human factors in road and rail transport, Ashgate Publishing, London. Hartig, K 2000, ‘Claiming the Freeway: Young Male Drivers in Pursuit of Independence, Space and Masculinity’, Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies, vol. 5 no 1, pp.36-49. Kotler, P Lee, R 2004, Corporate social responsibility: Doing the most good for your company and your cause, John Wiley Sons, New York. Schultz, P, Nolan, J, Cialdini, R, Goldstein, N Griskevicius, V 2007, ‘The constructive, destructive, and reconstructive power social norms’, Psychological science, vol.18 no 5, pp.429-434. Terry, D Hogg, M 1999, Attitudes, behaviour, and social context: The role of norms and group membership, Taylor Francis, Mahwah. This report on Social Marketing and Sustainability was written and submitted by user Norah Stuart to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Imaginary Friends (Published) Essays

Imaginary Friends (Published) Essays Imaginary Friends (Published) Essay Imaginary Friends (Published) Essay Imaginary friends Imaginary friends are very common in kids with big imagination, very lonely or mentally ill. The most probable would be loneliness. These are usually caused by children whose parents are away or always busy. Thus, their time being with their children is limited. It is said that because of their loneliness, imaginary friends are born. They would usually talk with them, play with them or just stay by their sides. These are very normal, but they also have side effect. Some of the rare causes of having imaginary friend are having a real spiritual friend. Many causes of paranormal stuffs involving hallucinations or mentally ill, but some are real. These rare cases are only experienced by children who have physical abilities or just victims of their super natural world. Sometimes, when a family moves to another place, there is a small percentage that their children would experience having an imaginary friend, depending on the things that took place where they live. Some fortunate kids would make new spiritual friends. They might even become their guardian angel, but not all of them are lucky. I was one of the lucky few who have met such a kid. Her name was Antonia. She was one of my best friends until they move to a new house in Boston. I remember very well, that Antonia would come to my place and tell me stories of her childhood days. One of the stories she told me happed when she was like seven years old when she stayed at her grandparents’ house at summer in Tennessee. There at their house in Tennessee, she had no friends, so she had â€Å"Imaginary Friends†, for she thought it is common for children of all ages to have imaginary friends. Yet, children usually aren’t able to tell a story to adults so many times without it being true. As I can recall, the story happened like this†¦ That night before she went to sleep, she laid there in the bed and stared at the ceiling. The room has many kinds of antiques, since that room belonged once to Antonia’s how many greats grandmother. In the middle of the room there was a crystalline chandelier, which any home probably from the eighteen hundreds. I remembered her telling me that whenever she’s looking at this chandelier every night, all of a sudden many little sparkles would come piling out. The only way she can describe them is when its dark and you look around, you can see tons of little lights blinking, or when you look into the sun for too long. Anyway, these were not just from looking into the dark they moved, without her moving my eyes. Every night, her â€Å"sparkling imaginary friend† would appear out from the chandelier. Every night they would talk about things that they have in common. Also she told me that whenever she would talk to her, they did not speak to her aloud nor whisper, but she could hear them in her head and would answer them aloud. Which was weird for a kid like her, but she didn’t care much back then. I would, in conversation, mention my sparkling imaginary friends, my parents would think nothing of it. Then I started to talk about them more frequently, maybe trying to tell my parents about them. One night, my parents were putting me to bed and brought a glass of milk for me to drink. I insisted that my friends were mad at me. I dont remember why they were upset now, but Im thinking because I told my parents. They left the room and the glass of milk with me. The next morning my big brother came to wake me up and found that the glass of milk had been dumped on my head. He ran and got my parents, who woke me up and asked me why would you do this? I simply replied, I told you they were mad at me. My so-called imaginary friends never forgave me. I never saw them again but throughout the year some more odd things have happened to me, but as she got older her imaginary friends slowly fade away and thus she had made friends with real people. Real friends that will be by her side no matter what’ll happen.

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Reasons for the Introduction of Statutory Planning in Britain Essay

Reasons for the Introduction of Statutory Planning in Britain - Essay Example In 1800, the population was 10.5 million and by 1850, this number was nearly 21 million indicating a doubled figure. By 1900, the population had nearly doubled again and the figure at that time was 37 million. It became obvious that such an increase in population would finally change the physical appearance of the country and result to potential problems associated with this (Penri 2008). At the same time, the industrial revolution had transformed Britain from a country dominated by agriculture into an industrial nation. Early industrial revolution centered populations in the northern Europe specifically Midlands, England and South Wales due to the wool and cotton towns and coalfields. The result was a dramatic growth of the industrial towns and both in terms of population and infrastructure. At this time, there was no pressure for statutory planning in Britain. The result of this was appalling conditions marked by haphazard springing of factories and houses. Due to minimal pressure for statutory town planning, there was no attempt to conduct zoning in Midlands, England and South Wales. As a result, most people lived near their workplaces. There was also no attempt to control the standards of construction and sanitation in these towns. This laxity was a result of a strong belief and reliance on the capacity of the private sector. Consequently, the foul state of housing in these towns led to serious outbreaks and spread of diseases like typhoid and cholera. Towards the end of 19th century, there were increasing concerns for housing conditions especially in the most industrialized towns. There was a need to act in order to control the existing trends in the construction of houses and industries. The believe that cities are evil was also growing. By the end of the 19th century, opinions supporting the need to conduct legislation governing town planning were forwarded by various individuals. At this time, there was also an increased interest in Germany because it h ad already legislated statutory planning. It was a good example for Britain. A more powerful force on the need to legislate resulted from the ideas and publications of protagonists of planning like J. S Nettlefold. Nettlefold believed in decentralization to the suburbs due to their pleasant environment, cheap transport and cheap land. In 1908, he published a book entitled Practical Housing which outlined the general plan required for unbuilt land, new powers to implement proposals and municipal ownership of land (Penri 2008). Effectiveness of the early statutory planning legislations and their impacts on urban development in the period up to 1939 According to Penri (2008), the first planning Act in Britain was passed in 1909. This Act authorized local councils to prepare planning schemes for any land that was undergoing development or that which was likely to be used for building purposes. The latter group of lands mainly comprised of suburban lands. The planning schemes were suppos ed to be prepared with the main aim of ensuring that in the years to come, lands that lie within the vicinity of towns are developed in a manner that connection between them and neighboring lands was most convenient. Most importantly, they were to ensure that the land development processes allowed for proper amenity and sanitary conditions. Apart from regulating the number of premises built per site and the space between them, the town planning schemes defined zones and controlled the types of buildings permitted per zone. By 1913, a total of 66 town planning schemes had already been drafted in 50 of Britain’s local authorities. Only those of Middlesex and Birmingham were approved. The preparation and approval of a scheme took a long time. Generally, the process was long and